21. When was the Olympic flag created?
The Olympic flag, created in 1913 at the suggestion of Baron Pierre de Coubertin, was solemnly inaugurated it Paris in June 1914, but, it was raised over an Olympic stadium for the first time at the Antwerp Games in 1920. There is also a second Olympic flag is made of white silk and contains five intertwined rings. From left to right the rings are blue yellow, black, green and red. The rings are meant to recall the five continents. At least one of these colours is found on the flag of every country.

22. How did arithmetical numbers come into existence? Where was ‘zero’ invented?
The arithmetical numbers, which are universal today, were first invented system in India. This is known as Hindu numeral system. It simplified calculations by marking the values of a number depend on its position as well as the number itself. In the number 444, the single figure 4 represents 400, 40 and 4, and the whole number is the sum of these values. In contrast, the Romans used symbols whose values were the same irrespective of their positions.
Hindu numeral system included a zero. So, zero was first invented in India. Zero revolutionised arithmetical calculations and the numeral system. It was adopted by the Arabs and then reached Europe as early as in 10th century.

23. What are the viruses and bacteria?
Viruses and bacteria are the smallest living things. Viruses have no cell walls and can only work properly inside the cells of other living organisms. Bacteria are larger than viruses and can exist by themselves.
A virus is made up of a protean coat wrapped around a small amount of DNA or RNA. It can reproduce itself but only when it is inside a living cell. Versus are, there fore, on the borderline between living and non-living things. When they invade cells they usually cause disease.
Bacteria are tiny, single-celled organisms. Some are round, others are rod-shaped and some even look like cork-screws.
Some bacteria cause disease but many other are useful. A large number feed by breaking down dead plant and animal matter. They release chemicals into the soil that can be used by plants.

24. Why is it harmful to see solar eclipse with naked eye?
Doctors always warn people, especially children, against watching the solar eclipse, either directly or through smoking glasses or even in shallow water as in utensil. The harmful rays in the sunlight (infrared rays) are at the maximum during the eclipse and it burns the most sensitive part of retina, forea and macula, leading to irreversible loss of eyesight.
The surface of the sun is about four times as hot as a furnace. The lens or cornea in our eyes acts like a burning-glass. If one looks straight at the sun, the lens will be destroyed for life. Even if we look at the sun through smoked glass, the sun may look dim, but the dangerous heat rays can still pass through. Whenever there is an eclipse of the sun, some people are blinded because they take foolish risks of this sort.

25. Which is the largest muscle in human body?
Muscles normally account for 40 percent of human body weight and the bulkiest of the 639 named muscles in the human body is usually the “gluteus maximus” or buttock muscle, which extends the thigh. However, in pregnancy the uterus of womb can increase its weight forms about 30 grams to over 1kg.

26. What protects our eyes?
Our eyes are very delicate organs that need protection. Tears kill invading germs and our eyelids, eyelashes and eyebrows help to keep out other harmful particles.
Our eyes first line of defence is eyelashes and eyelids. Our eyelashes from two rows of stiff hairs around each eye. They help to catch and remove any large particles that come too close to our eyes.
Our eyelids are equipped with muscles so that they can open and close. The reflex action that makes up close our eyes helps to protect them from being injured by objects or dazzled by bright light. Any dust or dirt that does reach our eyes is removed when we blink. Our eyelids close briefly, sweeping across the front of our eyeballs.
The eyebrows form two long patches of protective hairs above our eyes. They prevent moisture from our forehead from running down into our eyes.

27. Who invented insulin?
Insulin is a very useful drug for diabetes and was discovered by the Canadian physician and Nobel price winner , Dr.Federik Grant Banting in 1921.

28.Which is the birth place of Shakespeare?
Birthplace of Shakespeare is at Stratford-on-Avon, a town in south- west Warwickshire, in central England, on the Avon River. It is also the burial place of Shakespeare.

29. Which planet is known as the ‘Evening Star’?

30.What is photophobia?
Photophobia means an abnormal fear of or aversion to light.
Source: Competition Success review

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